What are the common faults of wire and cable?

Common faults of wire and cable lines cause mechanical damage, insulation damage, insulation dampness, insulation deterioration, over-voltage, cable overheating faults. When the above faults occur in the line, the power supply of the fault cable should be cut off, to find the fault point, to the fault.
The direct cause of the cable failure is the breakdown of insulation. Mainly include:
1.Overload operation: long-term overload operation will increase the temperature of the cable and make the insulation aging, which will lead to the breakdown of insulation and reduce the construction quality.

2. Electrical interview: the construction of the cable head fails to meet the requirements, the cable head seals badly, moisture intruded into the cable interior, the cable insulation performance declined, no protective measures were taken when laying the cable, the protective layer was damaged, and the insulation declined.This problem is particularly obvious in all aluminum cables.
3. Civil engineering aspects: poor drainage in working well pipe trench, cable soaked in water for a long time, damaging insulation strength; The working well is too small, the bending radius of the cable is not enough, and the cable is damaged by extruding force for a long time. Mainly in the municipal construction of mechanical barbaric construction, cut and cut the cable.
4. Corrosion: The protective layer suffers chemical corrosion or cable corrosion for a long time, resulting in the failure of the protective layer and the decline of insulation.
5. The cable itself or the cable head accessories are of poor quality, the cable head seals are poor, the insulation glue dissolves and cracks, and the resonant phenomenon of the station is that the phase-to-phase capacitance of the line and the capacitance to the ground and the excitation inductance of the voltage distributor form a resonant circuit, so as to excite the ferroresonance.

Electric wire and cable industry development status

In the 1990s, China’s electric wire and cable industry has achieved rapid development. To become the world’s second largest producer of wire and cable. The development of the industry has given rise to the following problems:
One. The number of wire and cable enterprises is large but the scale is small, and state-owned enterprises have lost their dominant position in the industry. When Shanghai Cable Research Institute conducted the industry survey in 1988, the state-owned enterprises designated by the state accounted for 48% of the total industry output value, but now the collective enterprises, joint-stock cooperative enterprises, foreign enterprises and emerging enterprises such as Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan investment enterprises have taken the leading position in the industry.

Two. The product structure of the industry has changed. The proportion of wire and cable for winding and electrical equipment decreased, while the proportion of power cable and communication cable increased. This change is related to the rapid development of China’s electric power cables and communication industry, which is expected to continue in the future.


Three. Compared with foreign advanced enterprises, China’s wire and cable industry still lags far behind in terms of management level, technology level, technology content, product quality, etc., and equipment utilization ratio is low. The utilization rate of electric wire and cable equipment in China is about 30% on average, and 70% in advanced countries is normal.Four.Low labor productivity in the industry. Although China’s wire and cable industry has imported a large number of production equipment since the 1980s, which has greatly improved the labor productivity of the industry, the gap with foreign countries is still very large. For example, the per capita sales volume of China’s wire and cable industry is only 10%~20% of that of Japanese counterparts.


Five. Unreasonable product structure. In China’s wire and cable products, the proportion of low-tech products is too large, while the proportion of high-tech products is too small, and the product structure is unreasonable.
Six.Low input and output rate of materials. China’s enterprises in the production process, material consumption and waste is very serious, so that the input output rate is very low.
Seven. Backward management and long production cycle. The turnover of working capital in China’s electric wire and cable industry is less than two times, which is far lower than foreign countries’ 9-11 times.


Eight. The scientific research is weak, the enterprise innovation system establishment progress is slow. The innovation system is not yet in place.
Nine. Market awareness needs to be further enhanced. At present, factories in the industry, especially large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises, have only changed from production-oriented to sales-oriented, but have not yet achieved market-oriented. Large foreign enterprises have invested a great deal of manpower and material resources in market development to highlight the role of market orientation.

Analysis of current situation of wire and cable industry

Wire and cable are used to transmit electrical (magnetic) energy, information and electromagnetic energy conversion wire products. It is widely used in various departments of national economy and provides important supporting facilities for various industries, national defense construction and major construction projects.
China’s wire and cable industry, based on a large number of technology introduction, digestion and absorption and independent research and development, has formed a huge production capacity, product variety satisfaction rate and domestic market share of more than 90%. Large enterprises of wire and cable manufacturing have obvious advantages in market competitiveness and the market develops rapidly.


At present, the market competition in China’s wire and cable industry is fierce, and most small and medium-sized enterprises in China adopt price competition. Wire and cable enterprises lack of development momentum, independent innovation ability is not strong, in the low – and medium-end wire and cable market with relatively low technical added value, price competition is quite common.
As the global wire and cable market matures, wire and cable manufacturing slowdown, growth is not big, falling demand, cable companies relative excess capacity, prices, competition between enterprises, combined with copper, aluminum, plastic and other factors such as main raw materials rose sharply, causing many cable enterprise development difficult.
International cable enterprises occupy the market by means of mergers and acquisitions, external expansion and transfer of production bases, etc., and occupy a large share in the international market.
The relevant personage inside course of study introduces, in recent years foreign capital electric wire and cable enterprise enters, intensified the market competition of domestic electric wire and cable industry further.

China cable industry status and strategy advisory report

On June 30, 2020, the Report on The Current Situation and Strategy Of China’s Cable Industry compiled by the Professional Committee of Wire and Cable was officially released.
Held since July 19, 2019 China cable industry present situation and strategy advice consulting report (hereinafter referred to as the consulting report), since the first compilation work meeting lasted nearly a year, branch organizations invited more than 50 experts of cable industry in our country, to actively participate in data collection, organization and audit work such as writing, successfully completed the consulting report compiled and printed work, to learn the council submitted a satisfactory answer, also for the cable industry enterprise and provide a copy of an influential, cable enterprise innovation and development in China has guidance and reference function of the consulting report.


The official release of the Consulting Report fully reflects the work responsibilities of THE Institute in serving scientific and technological workers in the field of electrical engineering, in serving the innovation and development of industrial enterprises, in serving to improve the scientific quality of the whole people, and in serving the party and the government in making scientific decisions. The institute gives full play to its advantages of intelligence-intensive, talent gathering and extensive connections, and effectively provides a pragmatic and effective service for the development of the electrical engineering field and the electrical industry.
The official release of the consulting report is the first industrial consulting report issued by the Institute in the past 40 years. With the breakthrough of this zero, the society will not only continue to organize and compile around the industrial fields that occupy an important position in the national economy and whose products and technologies cover and are widely used, but also organize and compile relevant consulting reports for the emerging fields and high-end technology fields of national economic development. The first is to give full play to the role of the Institute in leading the development of disciplines, and the second is to guide the technological innovation of relevant industries, so as to make due positive contributions to the institute and provide technical support for the national formulation of relevant industrial development policies for the realization of the goal of transforming from a “manufacturing power in China” to a “manufacturing power in China”.

Cable boosts urban rail upgrades

Urban rail transit is playing an increasingly important role in meeting people’s travel needs, optimizing urban layout, alleviating urban traffic congestion, and promoting economic and social development.
According to statistics, between 2020 and 2025, intercity high-speed rail and rail transit will be the biggest investment in the “new infrastructure” sector. When the new infrastructure becomes the new wind mouth, the wire and cable industry is also about to usher in another period of rapid development.
Deep in the cable industry, Huaxing cable is always committed to the research, development, production and sales of higher-end and higher-quality cables, and keeps investing and improving in product research and development. It can not only live up to customers’ expectations, but also provide a complete set of safe and environmentally friendly cable solutions for urban rail transit.
At present, Huaxing has developed 5 categories of low-smoke, halogen-free and high-flame retardant cables for urban rail transit, including 35kV medium-voltage loop network cables, dc traction cables with rated voltage up to 1500V, low-voltage power cables, control and signal cables, and wire distribution cables, which cover more than 95% of the cable products for urban rail transit.


At the same time, on the basis of these five categories of products, The Technology research and development team of Huaxing continuously innovates and develops high-end products such as intelligent monitoring cables and B1 class new flame-retardant cables to facilitate the construction of smart city rail transit. Among them, dc feed return cables used in rail transit with rated voltage up to and including 1500V are mainly used in dc traction power system of rail transit or transmission and distribution occasions for fixed laying. Can also meet the requirements of flame retardant A and flame retardant B1 level, cable crust and has lower combustion dropped, smoke toxicity and corrosive, waterproof, rat ants, uv protection, effectively reduce the external factors on the cable damage, improve the safety of cable operation, widely used in subway, light rail and other crowded occasion safer, ensure more stable power transmission.
While intensifying the research and development of new products, Huaxin has closely adhered to the comprehensive international business strategy, caught up with the international market, positioned the low-voltage power distribution system mainly used in rail transit and other densely staffed places, and focused on the research and development of low-smoke halogen-free armored cables in line with British standards.
With the development of smart city, the development of urban rail transit in China has shifted from the past “speed and scale” to the new stage of “focusing on high-quality development”, and urban rail transit should also take a good path of independent innovation from technological innovation to industrial innovation. In this trend, Huaxing will seize the opportunity of The Times, and help to create a “safe, reliable and green” new era smart rail transit with more green, efficient and safe modern and intelligent solutions.

Cable breakpoint determination method

When a breakpoint occurs inside a wire or cable, it is difficult to visually determine the location of the breakpoint due to the wrapping of the external insulation.
Here are some quick ways to identify breakpoints:
Method of non-damaged cable:


Digital multimeter method
First connect one end of the breakpoint cable to the 220V wire and leave the other end dangling. Adjust the multimeter’s gear to ac 2V. Then, starting from the firewire access end of the faulty cable, one hand grasps the black marker pen, and the red marker slowly slides along the insulation layer of the faulty cable. The voltage of the cable without breakpoint is about 0.445V. When the red watch pen moves to a certain place, the voltage value displayed by the multimeter drops to 1/10 of the normal voltage, i.e. 0.04V. At this point, it can be concluded that the breakpoint is 15cm forward (firewire access).
This method cannot be used if the shield layer of the shield wire is not damaged.
Two, induction pen method
Firstly, it is excluded that there is power supply in the cable around the breakpoint cable. Then, the cable with breakpoint is connected to the fire line. Then, the induction pen is used to move slowly perpendicular to the cable.


Three, broken line method
For short cable test breakpoints, bend the two ends of the cable to the two ends of the red and black watch pen of the multimeter. Bend back and forth from one end of the cable. If the multimeter goes on and off at this point, the break point is here. Follow this method until you reach the break point.
Damaged cable methods:
Four. Acupuncture discrimination method


This method USES the on and off of the cable to check the breakpoint of the cable. Insert the steel needle on the breakpoint cable in sections, and then measure the on-off condition using a multimeter in turn. The difference is where the break point is. However, this method will damage the insulation layer, which is easy to cause other problems in later cable use.
Five.Methods of professional instrument detection
1. In addition, the fault point of underground cable can be judged by audio detector.
2. The cable fault telemeter can be used to determine the length of the cable as well as the short circuit and open point.
3. Different methods are used to determine the breakpoint location according to the actual situation. The above methods can basically determine the breakpoint location of the cable.

South Korea’s Green New Deal program

South Korea’s government has unveiled a Won73.4tn ($60.9bn) green New Deal as part of a broader national strategy to shift the economy from carbon-dependent to low-carbon and prepare for the post-COVID-19 era.
The Korea Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy said the funds invested in 2020-2025 will create 659,000 jobs and help the country overcome the economic crisis caused by novel Coronavirus while addressing climate and environmental challenges.


South Korea will seek to increase its renewable energy capacity to 42.7GW by 2025, from 12.7GW last year, and expand new energy vehicles to 1.33m electric and hydrogen vehicles.
The plan also promises to renovate public rental housing and schools to make them zero-energy and transform urban areas into green smart cities, the ministry said.
The green strategy is one of the main elements of the digital New Deal, the second pillar of South Korea’s new policy announced by President Moon Jae-in on Tuesday. “The Green New Deal is about pre-empting the climate crisis, and the COVID-19 pandemic reaffirms the urgency of tackling climate change.”
By 2025, the new policy will involve won114tn of direct investment from the state Treasury, plus funds from the private sector and local governments, which will rise to about Won160tn.
The green New Deal program will create 1.9 million new jobs over five years.

The function of outer sheath of cable

Outer sheath is a protective covering covering the cable sheath (inner sheath), mainly used for mechanical strengthening and anti-corrosion. Common cables have inner sheath as the outer sheath of metal sheath and inner sheath as the outer sheath of plastic sheath.
The outer sheath of the metal sheath is generally composed of three parts: the liner layer, the armor layer and the outer quilt layer. The gasket layer is located between the metal sheath and armor layer, which plays a role of protecting gasket and metal sheath against corrosion. The armor layer is metal belt or metal wire, mainly for mechanical protection, the metal wire can withstand the tension. The metal armor is protected from corrosion by the outer layer. The cushion and outer layer of the village are composed of asphalt, polyethylene tape, impregnated paper, PVC or polyethylene sheath and other materials. According to the different use environment and conditions of various cables, its outer sheath structure is also different, the outer sheath structure of common various types of power cables are shown in the table of various types of cables.


There are two kinds of structure of outer sheath for plastic sheath. One is only PVC or polyethylene sheath without outer sheath. The other is PVC sheath extruding PVC sheath or polyethylene sheath with the same thickness as the inner sheath. Traditional PVC outer sheath Due to the low working temperature of PVC, high voltage crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable with high operating temperature and protective insulation requirements is not suitable, so now high density polyethylene (CHDPE) or low density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the outer sheath has been very common, but no flame retardant. Fire prevention measures or flame retardant cables should be taken when laying. Using HDPE as the outer sheath can improve the insulation level of the sheath. The outer sheath and the corrugated metal sheath should be bonded.

Knowledge of power cord

The components of a power cord are as follows:
1. Copper wire. Copper wire is the core part of power cord. Copper wire is the carrier of current and voltage. The quality of a power cord depends on three points, namely, the density of copper wire, the material of the cord, the amount of copper wire, and the flexibility.
2. Inner sheath. Inner sheath is the material wrapped between the shielding layer and the wire core, also known as insulation sheath. The materials used are generally polyvinyl chloride plastic, polyethylene plastic or low smoke halogen-free. To ensure the safety of our power supply and prevent any leakage between copper wire and air.
3. Outer sheath. Outer sheath is the outermost protective layer (sheath) of the power cord, which plays the role of protecting the power cord. It is characterized by temperature resistance, cold resistance, oil resistance, water resistance, natural light interference, good winding performance, environmental protection, long service life.
Classification of power cord:

Power lines can be classified according to safety certification, the shape of the power cord plug and the standard of electricity consumption in different areas.
1. According to safety regulations, there are UL, CCC, VDE, PSE, SAA, UC, IRAM, IMQ, BSI, KS, PSB, SABS and so on.
2. According to the shape of the power cord plug, it can be divided into two flat power cord, three power cord, two round power cord, straight power cord, bent power cord, etc.
3. According to the standard can be divided into different parts of the electricity, the standard power cord, China standard power cord, European standard power cord, Japan standard power cord, the Australian standard power cord, the Brazilian standard power cord, Argentina standard power cord, power cord, Italy, the British standard power cord, South Korea standard power cord, standard power cord in Singapore, South Africa’s standard power cords, etc.


Manufacturing process:
Copper and aluminum single wire drawing of power cord – single wire annealing of power cord – stranded conductor of power cord – insulation extrusion of power cord – wire forming – Inner sheath of power cord – wire armor – outer sheath of power cord
Tips for identifying:
The identification method of power cord namely five look: look the quality qualification certificate of home appliance; Check the cross section of the wire; Look at the appearance of the power cord; Look at the core of the power cord; Look at the length of the power cord.
Above is a few small knowledge of power cord, hope to be helpful to everybody.

How to prevent wire and cable damage?

Wires and cables are easily affected by the external use environment. Careless protection will easily lead to hardening of the wire body, peeling off of insulation skin and other phenomena. Many users will mistakenly believe that the product quality has problems, which in fact has a great relationship with the temperature. The outer skin of electric power cable and wire products is mostly ordinary plastic or rubber. When the environment is below zero, the wire body of the whole electric wire and cable products will become hard and brittle, which may lead to the peeling and damage of the outer skin under the action of slight external forces. Cables may be damaged if not properly transported.


So, how to prevent damage to power lines and cables? You are advised to take the following precautions:
I. Pay attention to protective measures during ex-factory transportation: Protective measures are required when products are ex-factory loaded onto the means of transport. Such as the use of closed means of transport, to prevent direct exposure of the product; A soft cushion, such as a bedclothes or other soft foam, applied to a product; Handle with care when loading, do not load roughly, and avoid excessive bending.
2. Pay attention to prevent mechanical damage when unloading: When arriving at the destination or the construction site, the product supplier had better dispatch personnel to supervise and prevent the product from causing mechanical damage due to rough operation behavior during unloading.
3. Indoor storage and laying isolation layer: It is better to store the products indoors, and at the same time lay an isolation layer on the stored ground, such as wood boards, bedding, foam, etc., to prevent the products from being exposed to cold and moisture. Pay attention to prevent the products from being scratched by the wires and cables in direct contact with the ground.
4. Pay attention to control the temperature and prevent scratch during installation of the product: it is better to choose to work under the condition of warm temperature in mid-afternoon. If possible, you can warm up the product in advance with the heater and other equipment before use, so that the product can achieve the best performance. If it is buried, can be laid in the cable trench with a protective layer, such as cloth, foam, etc. If you are wearing a tube, make sure the inside and outside of the tube is smooth in advance, so as not to scratch the wire. Iron pipe should pay special attention to the purchase of qualified iron pipe, low quality iron pipe tube may have a lot of sharp raised points, it is very likely to scratch the cable skin.