Advantages of environmental protection cable

With the increasing level of urbanization, people’s work and life rhythm is accelerating, and people’s awareness of safety and environmental protection is also increasing. Wires and cables are closely related to the lives of residents, and consumers are increasingly demanding the safety and environmental performance of wires and cables.
Wire and cable companies have also begun to attach importance to the development and production of environmentally friendly wires and cables. So what is environmentally friendly wires and cables? Do you need to use environmentally friendly wires and cables in ordinary home decoration? Let’s take a look at environmentally friendly wires and cables.
What is an environmentally friendly cable?
Environmentally friendly wire and cable means that it does not contain heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, mercury, etc., and does not contain bromine-based flame retardants. It has been tested by SGS recognized testing agencies for environmental performance and meets the EU Environmental Protection Directive (RoSH) and is higher than its index Claim.
The environmentally friendly wire and cable does not produce harmful halogen gas or corrosive gas after burning, and generates less smoke during combustion, does not pollute the soil, and will not cause harm to the environment after the wire and cable are discarded. The low-smoke halogen-free flame-retardant cable we often say is a kind of environmentally friendly wire and cable.

What are the advantages of environmentally friendly wires and cables? What characteristics?
Environmental protection and no pollution:
The insulating materials and sheath materials used for environmentally friendly wires and cables are green and environmentally friendly materials, and do not contain heavy metals such as lead, hexavalent chromium, mercury, and cadmium that have harmful effects on the environment. So that it will not pollute the soil and the surrounding environment. And after harsh toxicity experiments, the mice were safe under the specified experimental conditions.
Has good low-smoke and halogen-free characteristics:
Environmentally friendly wire and cable materials do not contain halogens such as chlorine, bromine, and fluorine. Under emergency conditions (such as electrical accidents and fires), they do not produce harmful or corrosive gases, and emit less smoke during combustion. Can minimize the harm to the human body to ensure the user’s own health and safety.
Has good flame retardancy:
The flame-retardant and fire-resistant performance of environmentally friendly wires and cables fully complies with national standards. Wire and cable are not easy to burn and do not ignite when an electrical fire occurs. At the same time, under continuous combustion, they can ensure the normal operation of the circuit system for a certain period of time, and can greatly reduce the wires. The flame spread after the cable burns.

Environmentally friendly wires and cables can be recycled and reused or buried or incinerated after being discarded without harming or destroying the environment.
With high light transmittance:
The smoke produced when the environmental protection cable is burning is extremely thin, which is helpful for the victims to distinguish the safety exit and the firefighters’ firefighting work quickly. The light transmittance of environmental protection cables is greater than or equal to 60%, which is much higher than that of traditional flame retardant cables.
With strong waterproof and anti-corrosion performance:
The use of environmentally friendly materials with special molecular structure ensures ultra-low water absorption and special ultraviolet absorbers, which can prevent the weathering speed and degree of wire and cable exposed to the outside to a certain extent, while slowing the speed of wire and cable aging and extending the cable The service life can be up to 70 years.

The functions and advantages of twisted pair cable

Twisted pair cable. Most people don’t know what it is. As the name implies, twisted pair cable literally means to wind two or more separate insulated wires together and make them parallel to each other. Twisted pair wire has the property of eliminating interference. Therefore, cables are suitable for short distance data and voice infrastructure because they reduce the impact of electromagnetic interference on electronic signals. It is also more flexible and easier to install than coaxial cable. Use two types of twisted pair cable: shielded and unshielded. Shielded twisted pair wire (STP) has a thin wire mesh around the wire to protect transmission. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) does not.

The latter is the more common of the two types, used in Ethernet installations, and is often used in residential and enterprise applications. Shielded cables are used in telephone networks as well as network and data communications to reduce external interference and crosstalk, and are designed to aid grounding. Of the two types of cables, UTP cables are cheaper than STP cables and require less maintenance because they do not rely on external shielding. Although UTP can transmit data as fast as STP cables, they are much more noisy than STP cables. Twisted-pair cables are the most cost-effective choice for coaxial cable and fiber, but they also have lower bandwidth and higher attenuation, i.e., lower performance over longer distances. They also wear out easily and must be maintained regularly. It is best to use twisted pair cables anywhere where there is no strong electromagnetic interference.

Advantages: high cost performance, reliable and easy to install over short distances for best performance

Disadvantages: higher attenuation vulnerable to electromagnetic interference (EMI) low durability (must be maintained regularly)

The global subsea power cable market will grow at a compound annual rate of over 4% from 2020 to 2024

The market for subsea power cables is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of more than 4 percent from 2020-2024, driven largely by surging demand for electricity, according to Technavio.

According to the report, 47 percent of the market growth in the forecast period will come from Europe, with Italy, Denmark and Finland being important markets for European subsea power cables.

Europe is the largest subsea power cable market in 2019, and government support and growing concern about wind power will significantly drive growth in the subsea power cable market in the region during the forecast period.

Offshore wind turbines can produce more energy using fewer turbines than conventional ones. As a result, the Asia-Pacific region will enjoy rapid growth during the forecast period. Thanks to heavy investment in offshore wind projects over the past few years, China and India will account for most of the region’s share of the forecast period.

According to the IEA, demand for electricity will rise by 40 per cent by 2024. Similarly, growing environmental concerns will force economies to use renewable energy to generate electricity. As a result, the number of renewable projects such as wind and tidal power projects is increasing in most countries, which in turn will increase the demand for undersea power cables or submarine cables. The growing demand for intercountry and island connections will be one of the main drivers of market growth. Subsea power grid interconnection projects in France – UK, Belgium – UK and Ireland – UK are under construction.

On the other hand, the growing demand for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power cables will also drive the market growth. These HVDC cables are more and more popular compared with traditional cables because they are safe and reliable and can transmit power over long distances. These factors will drive the global subsea power cable market to grow at a compound annual rate of over 4% over the forecast period.

From the manufacturers’ point of view, Prysman, Nexans, Sumitomo Electric, Lenny Cable, Ankart Cable, Tengura Cable, Guhe Electrician, LS cable will continue to dominate the global subsea power cable market in the forecast period.

Design and laying of submarine cable

The design of submarine optical cable: anti-corrosion, anti-seepage, but also against sharks, compared with coaxial cable, optical fiber is quite obvious advantages, but its own is quite fragile, so this protection of optical fiber submarine cable peripheral protection structure put forward higher requirements. Specifically, the design of submarine optical cable must ensure that the internal optical fiber is not affected by external forces and the environment. Its basic requirements include adaptability to submarine pressure, abrasion resistance and non-corrosion, etc. It also has to prevent hydrogen from forming inside (and therefore not using aluminum) and hydrogen from outside (preventing gas infiltration). In addition, it must be properly armored to protect it from trawlers, anchors and sharks. When the cable is broken, but also as much as possible to reduce the length of seawater into the cable; At the same time, it can withstand the tension during laying and recovery; Last but not least, the service life of submarine cables is generally required to be over 25 years.

Based on the above requirements, the current design structure of submarine cables usually consists of one or two coating treatments of the fiber in a spiral wrapping around the center, and then reinforcing members (made of steel wire) wrapped around (usually 69 mm in diameter). Specifically, it includes: polyethylene layer, polyester resin or asphalt layer, steel strand layer, aluminum waterproof layer, polycarbonate layer, copper or aluminum tube, paraffin layer, alkane layer, fiber bundle, etc.

Laying process: from relying on the tide to relying on robots

The laying project of submarine optical cable is recognized as one of the most complicated and difficult large-scale projects in the world, which is not difficult to understand why the service life of submarine optical cable is required to reach more than 25 years, because laying once is very troublesome! The laying process of submarine optical cable can be divided into two parts, namely, the laying of shallow sea area and the laying of deep sea area. In the deep sea area, the laying of submarine optical cable has to go through three stages, namely, exploration and cleaning, sea cable laying and burial protection. The laying of submarine cables mainly depends on the cable laying ships and underwater robots. The cable laying ships should pay special attention to the sailing speed and cable release speed, so as to control the water inlet Angle and laying tension of the cable, so as to avoid damaging the fragile optical fibers in the cable due to too small bending radius or too large tension.

As shown in the figure above, this is the laying process of an undersea optical cable. In shallow sea areas, the laying ship stays a few kilometers away from the coast, and the cable placed on the floating bag is pulled to the shore by the shore tractor. Then the floating bag is removed to make the cable sink to the sea floor. In the deep sea, the laying ship is mainly responsible for releasing optical cables, and then the underwater detector is combined with the underwater remote control vehicle for underwater monitoring and adjustment, so as to avoid uneven and rocky areas on the seabed. The robot then proceeded to a three-step operation: first, it created a trench about 2m deep in the sea floor, using high-pressure flushing; The second step is to put the cable into the trench; Third, cover it with the sand nearby.

Special to note here is that a intercontinental submarine cable is difficult to a complete laid, because at present the most advanced optical cable laying ship can only carry 2000 kilometers of fiber optic cable (and now laying rate can only reach 200 km/day), thus laid to segments, and each paragraph “cable docking”, needs to be done in laying the ship, and requires high technology.

Five causes of cable fire and explosion

1. Insulation damage causes short circuit fault
The protective lead cover of power cables is damaged during laying or the cable insulation is damaged by mechanical damage in operation, which causes the insulation breakdown between cables or between the lead cover. The electric arc will cause the insulation materials and the protective layer of cables to burn up.
2. The cable is overloaded for a long time
For a long time in overload operation, the operating temperature of the cable insulation material exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of normal heating, making the cable insulation aging and dry up. This phenomenon of aging and dry up insulation usually occurs in the whole cable line. As the cable insulation ages and dries up, the insulation material loses or reduces the insulation performance and mechanical properties, so it is easy to break down and burn, or even burn up in many places along the whole length of the cable.

3. Insulation breakdown of intermediate connector box
The intermediate joints of the cable connector box are oxidized, heated and glued during operation due to loose pressing, weak welding or improper selection of joint materials; When making cable intermediate joint, the quality of insulating agent in the intermediate joint box does not meet the requirements. During the filling of insulating agent, there will be air holes in the box memory and leakage of moisture into the cable box due to poor sealing and damage. All the above factors can cause insulation breakdown, form short circuit, and cause cable explosion and fire.
4. Cable end combustion
As the surface of the cable head is contaminated by moisture, the porcelain bushing of the cable head is broken and the distance between the lead wires is too small, which leads to flashier fire and causes the surface insulation of the cable head and lead wire insulation to burn.
5. Cable fire caused by external fire source and heat source
Such as oil system fire spread, oil circuit breaker explosion fire spread, boiler pulverized coal system or coal conveying system coal spontaneous combustion, high temperature steam pipeline baking, acid and alkali chemical corrosion, welding spark and other fire, can cause the cable fire.

What will affect the cable life?

Popularity has very high power, manufacturing from all walks of life cannot leave the electricity, the power is inseparable from the cable, so the service life of the cable will directly affect the safety of production, the service life of the cable is determined by the oxidation induction period of sheath material, use 20 years general cable design, real life is far greater than this value.
What are the factors that lead to reduced cable insulation?
1. External damage
From the operation analysis in recent years, especially in the rapid economic development today, a considerable number of cable faults are caused by mechanical damage.
2. Damp insulation
This is also common, usually at the end of a cable in a buried or drain pipe. For example: cable joints made unqualified and in humid climate conditions to do the joint, will make the joint water or mixed with water vapor, for a long time under the action of the electric field to form water branches, gradually damage the cable insulation strength and cause failure.

3. Chemical corrosion
Cables buried directly in areas with acid and alkali effects will often cause corrosion of the cable armor, lead or outer sheath. Long-term chemical or electrolytic corrosion of the protective layer will lead to failure of the protective layer and reduced insulation, and also lead to cable faults. Change: the cable corrosion situation of unit is quite serious.
4. Long-term over-load operation
In overload operation, due to the thermal effect of current, the conductor will inevitably heat up when the load current passes through the cable. Meanwhile, the skin effect of charge, the eddy current loss of steel armor and the insulation medium loss will also generate additional heat, which will increase the cable temperature. In long-term overload operation, excessive temperature will accelerate the aging of insulation and even the insulation will be broken down. Especially in the hot summer, the temperature rise of the cable often leads to the first breakdown of the cable insulation weakness, so in the summer, the cable faults are particularly frequent.

5. Cable joint failure
The cable joint is the weakest link in the cable line. The fault of the cable joint caused by the personnel’s direct fault (poor construction) often occurs. In the process of making the cable connector, if the original network such as the joint is not pressed tightly and the heating is not sufficient, the insulation of the cable head will be reduced, thus causing an accident.
6. Environment and temperature
The external environment and heat source in which the cable is located will also cause the cable temperature to be too high, the insulation to break down, and even the explosion and fire.
7. Other factors
Normal aging of cable body or other reasons such as natural disasters.

What is aluminium alloy power cable?

Aluminum alloy power cable is a new material power cable with AA8030 series aluminum alloy material as the conductor, adopting advanced technology such as special roll forming wire twisted production process and annealing treatment. Alloy power cable made up for the inadequacy of previous pure aluminium cable, although there is no improve the conductive properties of the cable, but the bending performance, creep resistance and corrosion resistance are greatly improved, to ensure that the cable for a long time to keep continuous stable performance when overload and overheat, the AA – 8030 series of aluminum alloy conductor, which can greatly improve the conductivity of the aluminum alloy cable, high temperature resistance, and solves the problem such as pure aluminium conductor, creep. The conductivity of aluminum alloy is 61.8% of that of copper IACS, the most common reference material. But at the same volume, the actual weight of an aluminum alloy is about a third that of copper. Therefore, the weight of the aluminum cable is about half that of the copper cable with the same load flow. The use of aluminum cable instead of copper cable can reduce the weight of the cable, reduce installation costs, reduce equipment and cable wear, making installation easier.
Aluminum alloy cables add copper, iron, magnesium, silicon, zinc, boron and other alloying elements into the electrical aluminum. At the same time, through process adjustment, the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy conductors are greatly improved to avoid the problems of low elongation, poor creep resistance and poor flexibility of pure aluminum conductors and increase the connection reliability of the cable system. In addition, keep the electrical properties of aluminum alloy and electrical aluminum conductor equal, at 61%IACS above.
Alloy power cable made up for the inadequacy of previous pure aluminium cable, although there is no improve the conductive properties of the cable, but the bending performance, creep resistance and corrosion resistance are greatly improved, to ensure that the cable for a long time to keep continuous stable performance when overload and overheat, the AA – 8030 series of aluminum alloy conductor, can significantly improve the conductivity of the aluminum alloy cable, high temperature resistance, at the same time solve the pure aluminium conductor electrochemical corrosion, creep, etc.
The conductivity of aluminum alloy is 61.8% of that of copper IACS, the most common reference material. But at the same volume, the actual weight of an aluminum alloy is about a third that of copper. . Therefore, the weight of the aluminum cable is about half that of the copper cable with the same load flow. The use of aluminum cable instead of copper cable can reduce the weight of the cable, reduce installation costs, reduce equipment and cable wear, making installation easier.
Aluminum alloy power cable has good mechanical properties and electric properties, it can be widely used various fields of national economy, such as common people residence, high-rise buildings, elevators, both large supermarket shopping malls, subway, airport, railway stations, hospitals, Banks, office buildings, hotels, postal telecommunications building, exhibition hall, library, museum, ancient buildings, schools, electricity, building, public places of entertainment, tunnels, underground buildings, warehouses, etc., can also be used for metallurgy, steel, coke, coal mines, power plants, power transmission and transformation station, shipbuilding, petroleum, chemical, aerospace, military, medicine, nuclear power plants, paper and other industries, And home appliances, cars, public transportation, and so on.

This summer, U.S. electricity demand fell to its lowest level since 2009

Summer electricity demand in the US is expected to be the lowest since 2009, according to the US Energy Information Administration.
The summer demand level from June to August is expected to be 998 billion kilowatt-hours, down 5% from last summer’s demand, the report said. The lower power demand is mainly due to the coronavirus pandemic and its effects.
Compared with demand in 2019, the EIA said it expected residential electricity use to increase by 3 per cent, while commercial electricity use would fall by 12 per cent and industrial use by 9 per cent.
The EIA says coal production is likely to be lower than last summer. Coal is forecast to generate 178 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, down from 272 billion kilowatt-hours last year.
It said it expected coal to account for just 17 per cent of electricity generation this summer, down from 24 per cent last summer.
Gas is expected to grow from 460 billion KWH last summer to 467 billion KWH this summer, with low gas prices making it attractive. Natural gas is expected to account for 44% of electricity generation this summer, up from 41% last year.
The EIA says the share of wind power will reach 7% this summer and utility-scale solar will grow to 3%.

China’s optical fiber and cable market is recovering

With the novel Coronavirus epidemic under rapid control in China and the policy requirement to speed up the construction of new infrastructure such as 5G and big data center, the three domestic operators have also substantially increased the capital expenditure related to 5G. All these have provided further room for the growth of demand for optical fiber and cable.

Economic recovery CRU raised China’s optical fiber and cable market demand forecast

Michael Finch, director of CRU cables, said that given the latest statistics, worldwide demand for cable is expected to contract by 12-13 per cent year-on-year in the first quarter, falling below 100 million core kilometres, the lowest level since the fourth quarter of 2015.

Looking at the Chinese market, Michael Finch points out that demand for fiber optic cable in China has collapsed in Q1, down 18.6% year on year. Meanwhile, In Q1 of 2020, China will account for only 44 percent of the global demand for optical cable, compared with 53 percent in the same period of 2018.

Michael Finch said, “While fTTX-related demand continues to weaken, increased capital spending and a greater focus on 5G will support growth in China’s fiber demand. So we think the market will be brighter for the rest of 2020.”

It is clear that the signs of China’s economic recovery are becoming more and more obvious, and all eyes are now on the bidding of China’s three major operators. Against this backdrop, CRU raised its forecast for the Chinese market in 2020, with a projected demand decline of 5.7%. Michael Finch noted that CRU had forecast a 9% decline in February.

According to Michael Finch, China’s naked fiber market will be dominated by destocking in 2020, and the country’s naked fiber production is expected to fall 14 percent for the full year, while fiber optic cable production will fall 5 percent. Meanwhile, Michael Finch notes that despite the difficulties, many Chinese manufacturers will seek opportunities to expand exports this year.

In asia-pacific, excluding China, overall demand will remain weak in 2020, especially in India. In addition, in The North American market, higher demand growth was supported by regional protection and increased capital spending by U.S. carriers such as Verizon. However, in the European market, due to the impact of Q1 and Q2 epidemic, the demand showed a significant decline. “The delay in 5G deployment across Europe and the Asia-Pacific region has also affected the demand for fiber optic cables in the region to some extent.” Michael Finch says.

According to Michael Finch, operators are experiencing certain performance and financial pressures as a result of the outbreak, which will affect their investment and deployment plans. According to the latest estimates, global demand for optical fiber and cable is expected to drop by 3.6% in 2020, compared with a 1.9% decline in the absence of the epidemic. However, CRU also raised its market forecast for 2021 to 10.5% from 9.3%.

Cable raw material copper, trend analysis in July

Analysis of the main products of cable raw materials (copper): According to the monitoring data of the cable network, the domestic spot copper price continued to fall sharply in July, and the overall copper price fell during the month. The average spot copper price in the beginning of the month was 42585. RMB/ton, the average spot copper price at the end of the month was 39,030 yuan/ton, and the price dropped by 3555 yuan/ton, a decrease of about 8.35%.

Macroscopically, abroad, the minutes of the Federal Reserve’s June meeting announced recently confirmed the recovery of the US economy. The Federal Reserve’s interest rate hike in September may intensify. This topic may still be the focus of the market in August. However, the US GDP in the second quarter fell short of expectations. It was not easy to realize the interest rate hike in September. What is more certain is that the strength of the US dollar will not change, which may trigger a new round of upsurge of funds leaving the commodity market, which will also put pressure on copper prices. On the domestic front, the current Chinese economy is still operating at a low level. Although the Chinese government continues to introduce loose monetary policy in the second half of the year, it has limited room for short-term boost to the real economy. Therefore, the copper market may still be under pressure in the first half of August. When the off-peak season alternates, copper prices may rebound.

Market: Since the second quarter, the downstream operating rate has gradually increased, and through the arrival of the peak season of copper pipes and other industries, the overall market turnover has improved, but year by year, this year’s peak season is not busy. Affected by the weakening of consumption in the off-season in July and the weakness of China’s economy, spot copper prices have dropped sharply, but merchants’ adjustments have remained stable and no selling has been seen. After the copper price hit a new low, suppliers are reluctant to sell. When copper supply has shrunk, consumption has shrunk, and the overall economy is severely severe, copper prices are unable to rebound, and the subsequent continued decline may break through.

Inventory: LME and Shanghai copper inventories continued to show a slight growth trend this month. The latest statistical data shows that LME copper stocks reported 345,475 tons, which is a bit higher than before; while in the past week, Shanghai copper stocks on the Shanghai Futures Exchange increased slightly to 103,117 tons. Inventory has been in a downward channel for several months, but it increased slightly in July. The growth in July may be related to the recent cross-market arbitrage. Due to the continued profitability of imports, the positive arbitrage of buying LME copper and selling Shanghai copper has the opportunity. This may attract some traders to ship the goods to the warehouse, but the overall amount of change is not large. . At present, the overall supply pressure of copper is not great, and the difficulty of copper price upwards still comes from the shrinkage of the demand side.cable cu

Outlook forecast: July economic indicators have been significantly eased compared to the previous month, but the market focus has remained on the economic side. The recent US data has been weak and unfavorable, but the dollar is still strong, putting pressure on basic metals such as copper, plus China Copper consumption has always been in a weak position, which has greatly reduced global copper consumption. Therefore, copper prices have been unable to rebound and have fallen frequently. In the short term, there is still room for rebound in copper prices, but in the long run, US interest rate hikes have reached the long-term strength of the US dollar index, coupled with the copper market demand has not yet recovered significantly, copper prices will weaken again later.